Generated on: 02-28-21 01:07:15

Studies Unique Samples per Visibility Status Public Samples per Data Type Users Jobs
public: 583
private: 247
sandbox: 1,550
submitted to EBI: 411
public: 271,529
private: 148,092
sandbox: 335,559
submitted to EBI: 208,944
submitted to EBI (prep): 241,289
16S: 272,684
18S: 8,769
ITS: 11,634
Metagenomic: 20,785
Full Length Operon: 73
Metatranscriptomic: 819
Metabolomic: 407
8,997 386,766

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The effect of diet on the human gut microbiome: a metagenomic analysis in humanized gnotobiotic mice - generation two

Diet and nutritional status are among the most important modifiable determinants of human health. The nutritional value of food is influenced in part by a persons gut microbial community (microbiota) and its component genes (microbiome). Unraveling the interrelations among diet, the structure and operations of the gut microbiota, and nutrient and energy harvest is confounded by variations in human environmental exposures, microbial ecology, and genotype. To help overcome these problems, we created a well-defined, representative animal model of the human gut ecosystem by transplanting fresh or frozen adult human fecal microbial communities into germ-free C57BL/6J mice. Culture-independent metagenomic analysis of the temporal, spatial, and intergenerational patterns of bacterial colonization showed that these humanized mice were stably and heritably colonized and reproduced much of the bacterial diversity of the donors microbiota. Switching from a low-fat, plant polysaccharide-rich diet to a high-fat, high-sugar Western diet shifted the structure of the microbiota within a single day, changed the representation of metabolic pathways in the microbiome, and altered microbiome gene expression. Reciprocal transplants involving various combinations of donor and recipient diets revealed that colonization history influences the initial structure of the microbial community but that these effects can be rapidly altered by diet. Humanized mice fed the Western diet have increased adiposity; this trait is transmissible via microbiota transplantation. Humanized gnotobiotic mice will be useful for conducting proof of-principle clinical trials that test the effects of environmental and genetic factors on the gut microbiota and host physiology. Nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences are deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers GQ491120 to GQ493997.

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